Notes on perspective
15th century -perspective dependent on relative sizes of foreground and background.
Linear perspective -depends on the focusing of lines of light at the eye
Aerial perspective -loss of colour form and texture as objects get further away.
Two point angular perspective -converging lines meet at different points on the horizon.
Use of the vanishing point as a means of drawing the eye to that focus.
Problems I have encountered with perspective particularly involve downhill and uphill views, circles and buildings with bay windows whose lintels change directions (? angular perspective) and the relative sizes of objects as they recede-(see the school hall drawing below.)
My drawings of INTERIORS -parallel perspective
“Through the open door”: rough sketch in felt tip.
“The school hall “(Newton in Bowland): conte gives the image a soft feel consistent with the sensation in the hall but the chairs stacked around the edges proved difficult to represent in relative size and have made it all look too “quaint”.
Three versions of the kitchen which gives a fantastic opportunity to play with perspective having a long bench and table and tiled floor:
“one cat in and one cat out”:
and a more detailed view:-perspective lines marked roughly as I drew:
perspective lines then marked with a ruler —I wasn’t far out –but the cat (on the right -now eating) proved a problem in sizing and had to be “attacked” with putty rubber as I had put too much pressure on the 2B pencil in trying to get the cat’s shape correct:
I like the first of these three attempts at perspective in the kitchen becuase of the fresher approach with less attention to shading and more to heavier use pof the pencil to demarcate closer objects.
The foreground lines have been intensified with B pencil and some of the shading increased in the background with the view through the glass door lightened with putty rubber but this still doesn’t have the light airiness of the original image and the table still appears to be going uphill to a degree….so I returned to the drawing using a view finder( which proved difficult to hold):
MAKE A LINE DRAWING OF A BUILDING SEEN CORNER -ON
when you have drawn the buildings- draw in the eye level -all parallel lines should meet at the eye level. There will many vanishing points and most will be off the paper.
1) “The Old Farm Buildings”
The building had a sloping roof, the buildings go downhill beyond the gate and the gate was open at a different angle to the buildings.
“Gawthorpe Hall” Drawn in watercolour pencils -I had much difficulty with the windows (which were straight edged bays) as regards, perspective, size and positioning..the architecture is Tudor and very complex . The drawing was done circa 19:00 hrs when the beautiful soft orangey stone work was in partial shade and the air filled with the perfume of roses and lavender…very English.
It was not unitl this picture was blogged did I notice the incorrect line of perspective on the tower and when looking at a photograph -see below did I start to understand the windows which caused immense problems. They are perhaps best described as three sides of an octagon, but even with the photograph in front of me I had difficulty working out the perspective of these windows.
photo of Gawthorpe Hall -sourced on line from :http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/gawthorpe-hall/
Angular perspective “The lane” The fence and overgrown path lead at angles to each other.
Check and Log pg 90
What problems are there with executing a perspective drawing?
Finding the vanishing points, ensuring parallel lines of sight meet at the vanishing points, problems when there are multiple parallel objects as in the window bays at Gawthorpe Hall, problems when the street or object before one is going down or uphill or curving out of sight, deciding on relative sizes of objects as they recede, circular or curved objects and ensuring objects in the foreground have greater tonal contrast and texture attempting to ignore the greater detail of objects further away (as in the cat in the kitchen drawing).
Make note of the merits of using or not using a ruler to guide you?
A ruler can make the image too correct veering towards a technical drawing, with harsh straight lines, rather than an open more artistic drawing, however rulers are invaluable when the perspective is difficult, to help focus the lines as they converge onto the focus point.
I think it may benefit me to find another building like Gawthorpe Hall with complex angular perspective and try to get to terms with the directions of the parallel lines!